Overview of Diabetes Mellitus
What is diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes occurs when your body does not make enough insulin. Or when your body can't
use the insulin that is made. Diabetes is called a metabolic disorder because the
disease affects the way the body uses food to make blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is the
body's main fuel source. The 3 main types of diabetes are:
Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. It occurs when
your immune system attacks the cells that make insulin. This leads to no insulin,
or a low amount of insulin. People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin every
Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs because the body can't make enough
insulin. Or because your body can't correctly use insulin. Type 2 diabetes may be
controlled with diet, exercise, and weight loss. You may need to take medicine by
mouth (oral) or with a shot.
Gestational diabetes. Women can develop diabetes during pregnancy. This is
called gestational diabetes. Their blood sugar levels are high and they have
other symptoms of diabetes. In many cases, all symptoms of diabetes go away after
the baby is born. But these woman are more likely to develop diabetes again
What is prediabetes?
Prediabetes often occurs before type 2 diabetes. In prediabetes, blood glucose levels
are higher than normal. But they are not high enough to be called diabetes. Many people
with prediabetes have type 2 diabetes within 10 years. Prediabetes also increases the
risk for heart disease and stroke. You can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes by making
lifestyle changes. These include losing weight if you are overweight. These also include
getting more exercise.
diabetes affect blood sugar?
Insulin is a hormone. It's made in the pancreas. Your body needs insulin to move blood
sugar (glucose) into the cells. . Normally insulin is in the body, ready to move the
glucose. But when you have diabetes, the pancreas makes too little or no insulin. Or
certain cells in the body don't respond to the insulin that is made. This causes glucose
to build up in the blood. The extra glucose passes into the urine and out of the body.
Your body is left without its main source of fuel.
What is maturity-onset diabetes in the young (MODY)?
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of different types of inherited
diabetes. They occur in teens and young adults. MODY is often at first incorrectly
diagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
symptoms of diabetes linked to MODY vary. It depends on the type of MODY diagnosed. MODY
2 seems to be the mildest form of the disease. It often causes only mild high blood
sugar (hyperglycemia). It also affects how the body responds to blood sugar. The other
forms of MODY may need treatment with insulin, much like type 1 diabetes. MODY makes up
1 in 100 to 1 in 20 cases of diabetes in U.S. adults. Family members of people with
MODY are at much greater risk for the condition. Your healthcare provider may diagnose
MODY if 3 generations of your family have been diagnosed with mild diabetes before age
25. It's also more likely if your family members are not obese and are not resistant to