¿Estás pensando en embarazarte? Toma los Siguientes Pasos para Asegurar un Embarazo y Nacimiento Saludables

La planeación para tener familia y el embarazo suelen ser emocionantes para las mujeres. Encontramos maneras novedosas de anunciar el embarazo a la familia y a los amigos. Realizamos búsquedas en Pinterest para investigar cómo dar a conocer si estamos esperando a un niño o una niña, actividades para el baby shower y decoración para el cuarto del bebé. En medio de tantas emociones, no nos detenemos a pensar en el estrés que representa un embarazo en el cuerpo de la mujer. ¿Hay pasos que podemos seguir antes de concebir que puedan reducir las complicaciones del embarazo y mejorar los pronósticos para el recién nacido? La respuesta es un rotundo ¡SÍ!

Empecemos por repasar las maneras en que un embarazo cambia al cuerpo de una mujer:

  • El volumen de la sangre se incrementa en un 30 a un 50 por ciento en las etapas tempranas del embarazo. Esto hace que el corazón y los riñones de la madre trabajen más.
  • Un incremento en el plasma de la sangre diluye las células sanguíneas que transportan al oxígeno, conocidas como hemoglobina, lo cual conduce a la anemia.
  • El crecimiento del vientre se vuelve cada vez más evidente. El útero crecido llega al ombligo como a la mitad del embarazo.
  • El bebé y el útero siguen creciendo durante el embarazo. El útero se extiende hacia la caja torácica a medida que crece. Esto obstaculiza la expansión de los pulmones provocando dificultades para respirar.
  • Las madres frecuentemente padecen de acidez estomacal y constipación. Esto es debido a que el útero sigue creciendo y las hormonas relacionadas al embarazo reducen la habilidad del organismo para procesar los alimentos.

Un embarazo saludable inicia antes de la concepción

La salud pregestacional se enfoca en cambios en el estilo de vida para promover la salud de la madre y prepararla para el estrés físico ocasionado por embarazo y el parto. La planeación temprana con tu doctor te permitirá monitorear el desarrollo de los órganos del feto durante el primer trimestre. Esto puede reducir las complicaciones durante el embarazo.

Tu doctor trabajará contigo para recomendarte un plan de salud pregestacional personalizado. Algunos de los temas que se abordarán son:

Historial médico y condiciones preexistentes.

  • ¿Están actualizadas las inmunizaciones de la madre?
  • Estar expuesta a enfermedades contagiosas puede tener efectos devastadores para el desarrollo fetal.
  • La infección por influenza (gripe) tiene mayores probabilidades de ser severa entre las mujeres embarazadas.
  • La vacuna Tdap (contra el tétanos, la difteria y la tosferina acelular) durante el tercer trimestre ofrecerá apoyo inmunológico al recién nacido para que pueda combatir la tosferina, también conocida como pertusis o tos convulsiva, una infección bacteriana altamente contagiosa de las vías respiratorias altas.
  • ¿Hay alguna condición preexistente que pueda impedir la función del corazón, los pulmones o los riñones?
  • En caso de haber deterioro previo al embarazo en las funciones de algún órgano, podrás trabajar con tu doctor para elaborar un plan de cuidados y así poder tomar decisiones de manera proactiva y no exclusivamente en el marco de las condiciones de emergencia.

Embarazos anteriores e historial familiar

  • ¿Hubo alguna complicación durante embarazos anteriores que tenga mayores probabilidades de ocurrir en el siguiente embarazo? Por ejemplo: diabetes gestacional, hipertensión inducida por el embarazo, depresión postparto, preeclampsia.
  • La realización temprana de estudios y/o intervenciones puede reducir la incidencia de los inicios de una enfermedad
  • Tu doctor también podría evaluar condiciones hereditarias que podrían pasar a la siguiente generación. 

Medicamentos

  • La exposición a los medicamentos podría tener efectos adversos en un feto en desarrollo. No obstante, no es razonable pedir a una mujer embarazada que interrumpa todos sus medicamentos si estos representan beneficios significativos para su salud. Los medicamentos están clasificados por categorías y en ocasiones, el cambio de algún medicamento podría reducir los riesgos para el feto en desarrollo. Algunos de los medicamentos que tu médico revisará son los antidepresivos, los medicamentos para la presión arterial, los medicamentos de venta libre y los suplementos.

Alimentación y Estilo de Vida

  • La evidencia demuestra que un peso saludable previo al embarazo disminuye la incidencia de la hipertensión (presión arterial alta), preeclampsia (presión arterial alta con complicaciones adicionales, tales como de los riñones), diabetes gestacional (diabetes que se presenta durante el embarazo) y dar a luz de manera prematura.
  • Una dieta rica en nutrientes proporciona al feto en desarrollo los elementos básicos que requiere. Desarrollar buenos hábitos alimenticios previo al embarazo puede ser la base para una buena nutrición. Consulta www.choosemyplate.gov/multilanguage-spanish para obtener mayor información.
  • Establecer un estilo de vida activo antes del embarazo te ayudará a mantener un peso saludable y prepara al cuerpo para el arduo trabajo de parto.
  • Incorporar el consumo de ácido fólico (400 microgramos/día) de 1 a 3 meses antes de concebir (y durante el embarazo) reduce la incidencia de los defectos del tubo neural (espina bífida y anencefalia) en los recién nacidos.
  • Se deberá evitar la exposición a las toxinas como el alcohol, el humo del tabaco y los contaminantes medioambientales durante el embarazo.

Si estás pensando en embarazarte, programa una cita con tu proveedor de servicios de salud para la mujer para maximizar tu salud previo al embarazo, reducir las complicaciones durante el embarazo y ¡promover el nacimiento de un bebé saludable!

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