Gynecologic Cancers

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The most important thing any woman can do to lower her risk of a gynecologic cancer is reduce the known risk factors and follow screening guidelines for detecting the cancer at its earliest stage.

Gynecologic cancers are cancers of the female reproductive system and include the uterus, cervix, ovary, vulva and vagina.

Endometrial cancers are the most common gynecologic cancers, followed by ovarian cancers. Endometrial cancers develop in the lining of the cervix and uterus respectively. Ovarian cancer can develop on the external surface of the ovary or inside the ovary itself.

Breast cancer is not considered a type of gynecological cancer.

Signs and symptoms of gynecological cancer may include:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Weight loss
  • Unusual vaginal discharge
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal or pelvic pain
  • Changes in bowel movements

At Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, gynecologic cancers are treated with a multidisciplinary approach in which a team of experts including gynecological oncologists and radiation oncologists work together to develop an individual treatment plans based on each patient’s unique needs.

Learn More About Gynecologic Cancers

The cervix is in the bottom part of the uterus (or womb, where a baby grows). It joins the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). Most women who develop cervical cancer are between 20 and 50 years old.

Learn more about cervical cancer 

Ovarian cancer is a cancer that is found inside, near, or outside they outer layer of the ovaries. Most women who develop ovarian cancer are older than 60. It is found more often in white than African-American women.

Learn more about ovarian cancer 

Uterine cancer, or cancer of the uterus (womb), also may be called endometrial cancer. It is the most common cancer of women’s reproductive organs.

Learn more about uterine cancer